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Reactions are usually complex events. Bonds are broken, formed, stretched and atoms driven by enthalpy and entropy in their marvelous path. From reactants to products, and vice versa.
Even when a system reaches equilibrium, it is very unusual for compounds to rest peacefully; instead, they will start going back and forth in perpetual motion. Continue reading
In order to understand the workings of a physical process or chemical reaction, a limited area of study must be isolated. This area is usually described as the system and can be as large or as small as necessary.
Any area not included in the system is considered the surroundings. Thermodynamics is the study of heat and other forms of energy in both chemical and physical processes in specific systems.
The first law of thermodynamics follows the law of conservation for heat. Simply stated, heat can not be created or destroyed, merely changed from one form to another. The second law involves the amount of order involved with a spontaneous reaction in a system. Continue reading
Includes multimedia that opens on relevant pages and allows the student to visualize many of the concepts by varying parameters and plotting different graphs. Things students often have difficulty with, such as isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and adiabatic process, are clearly visualized.
Physical Chemistry textbook
by Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary
This popular Physical Chemistry text book is now available in electronic format. We have preserved much of the material of the former hard copy editions, making changes to improve understanding of the concepts in addition to including some of the recent discoveries in physical chemistry. Many chapters have new sections and the coverage of several chapters has been greatly expanded.