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Chapter 4

Study tips and resources for Chapter 4 – Physical Chemistry by Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary

The modern understanding of equilibrium equation

Interactive multimedia of relationship between free energy and the equilibrium

Screenshot of Interactive multimedia showing relationship between free energy and the equilibrium constant (click to enlarge)

This equilibrium constant section (Chapter 4 of the Physical Chemistry textbook) provides a brief look into the history of the discovery of equilibrium.  As noted in the text, the scientists Berthelot and St. Gilles first represented the equilibrium equation using concentrations while Guldberg and Waage used kinetics. Equilibrium is reached when the forward and reverse reaction are happening simultaneously and at the same rate.  A brief review of the two systems might clarify the role each has to play in the overall understanding of equilibrium as used today.

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Thermodynamics Module - Physical Chemistry
Thermodynamics module
Chapters 1 to 6 of Physical Chemistry - Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary


Includes multimedia that opens on relevant pages and allows the student to visualize many of the concepts by varying parameters and plotting different graphs. Things students often have difficulty with, such as isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and adiabatic process, are clearly visualized.

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Physical Chemistry - Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary
Physical Chemistry textbook
by Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary


This popular Physical Chemistry text book is now available in electronic format. We have preserved much of the material of the former hard copy editions, making changes to improve understanding of the concepts in addition to including some of the recent discoveries in physical chemistry. Many chapters have new sections and the coverage of several chapters has been greatly expanded.

Get it from: Physical Chemistry - Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary

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