Study tips and resources for Chapter 4 – Physical Chemistry by Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary
This clip from the Physical Chemistry book explains how concentration changes with pressure. Changing the pressure on a gas can change the number of moles.
This leads us to the concept of the chemical potential: each compound has a potential to react and has its own molar Gibbs free energy. The greater the chemical potential is negative (at constant T and P) the greater the potential to react and minimize the Gibbs energy for the whole reaction.
Chemistry would be a whole lot simpler if all the reactions would just make their expected products (or even some by-products) and then be done. Reactants and products have a mind of their own though and are influenced by temperature, concentration, some even by the weather (pressure)! Worse, some products can’t seem to make up their mind and turn back into reactants. Continue reading
Equilibrium is certainly one of the most interesting topics for a chemist! However, it seems that to study it is neither easy (nor enjoyable) for our students. This is probably due to the inherent difficulty in handling a system not using a state function corresponding to an observable; using rather, this strange equilibrium constant, a “practical” interpretation of which may seem unclear. Continue reading
Includes multimedia that opens on relevant pages and allows the student to visualize many of the concepts by varying parameters and plotting different graphs. Things students often have difficulty with, such as isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and adiabatic process, are clearly visualized.
Physical Chemistry textbook
by Laidler, Meiser, Sanctuary
This popular Physical Chemistry text book is now available in electronic format. We have preserved much of the material of the former hard copy editions, making changes to improve understanding of the concepts in addition to including some of the recent discoveries in physical chemistry. Many chapters have new sections and the coverage of several chapters has been greatly expanded.